Chapter 8: Table of Contents
Inguinal or pre-scrotal testes are removed using a typical castration incision or by incising directly over the retained testis if it’s location is far from the standard midline incision. A parapreputial skin and paramedian abdominal wall incision is often used for removal of abdominal testes in dogs. The paramedian approach can be ‘messy’ due to muscular hemorrhage and provides limited access to the abdominal cavity. A parapreputial skin incision with midline abdominal wall incision is preferred; this approach requires more tissue dissection but leads to decreased hemorrhage and better visualization. The midline incision can be extended with less tissue trauma if the testis is not easily identified. Abdominal retained testes can be located anywhere between the kidney and the inguinal ring.
To confirm that the testis is indeed undescended, examine the inguinal rings. If the ductus deferens exits through the ring, the testis is not abdominal. Identification of the abdominal testis is achieved most efficiently by locating the ductus deferens at its prostatic termination, and following the ductus towards it’s testicular origin. Retroflexion of the bladder generally facilitates the identification of the ductus at the level of the prostate. The gubernaculums testis can also be followed from the inguinal ring to the undescended testis.
Abdominal testes can vary in size and shape. Ensure that the structure being ligated and removed is in fact the testis. Inadvertent prostatectomy has been reported in cases undergoing abdominal cryptorchidectomy through short paramedian incisions. Cryptorchid testes are double ligated using the techniques described for normal orchiectomy.